What is the Legislative Intent Behind a Subsequent Omission of Language in a Statute?

Clients have asked us how to use our legislative history materials in cases where an earlier bill enacts a particular word or phrase but then a subsequent bill makes changes to the statute omitting the earlier phrase.  In other words, what did the Legislature intend when it omitted the earlier enacted language? Short of finding specific discussion in the legislative history research material as to why the language was left out, case law can be useful in understanding legislative intent.  While Legislative Intent Service, Inc. provides an objective service summarizing the historical material provided, an added help to clients can be ... Read More >

How Do California’s Statutes Differ From Other States?

Every state has its own set of laws, regulations, and statutes. A statute refers to an arrangement of laws that is subject-based and permanent. The jurisdiction's legislature has passed it. According to USC Gould, as of right now, California has 29 different statutory codes. California is known to be the most heavily regulated state, but it is also known to have some of the most unique statutes and legislatures. California laws stand out against laws passed in other states for various reasons. The most prominent is that the citizens of California follow a separate constitution from the federal constitution. The California Constitution was ... Read More >

Understanding the Process of Passing California Legislature

Passing a law anywhere in the world is a mystery to some people, but it's much more straightforward than you may imagine. According to The Washington Post, more than 300 bills are waiting for the Senate to act on them. This article will focus on the California legislative process. Let's learn more about passing laws in this state. 1. The Introduction of a Bill The first part of introducing a new law is the idea that anyone can have, but they need to convince one or several members of the Legislature to pen it down. Afterward, this person will pass the idea to the Legislative Counsel's Office, where they will officially write the bill. The ... Read More >

New California Law Putting More Women on Company Boards

  Under a new state legislation signed by Gov. Jerry Brown, publicly held California corporations must have at least one woman on their board. This California law will be enacted by the end of 2019. And by 2021, those companies with five members must have at least two women and companies with six members or more must have three women board members at the minimum. In his signing letter, Brown wrote, "Given all the special privileges that corporations have enjoyed for so long, it's high time corporate boards include the people who constitute more than half the 'persons' in America." If companies fail to comply with these new state ... Read More >

California Gov. Jerry Brown Signs Historic Green Energy Bill

Like all in states, the California legislature has changed drastically over time. And while there are more than 300 bills regarding federal regulations waiting for Senate review, Gov. Jerry Brown has made history with the new bill he recently signed. The new bill pledges California will use 100% clean electricity by 2045. California already had a goal in place to be using 50% clean energy by 2030 -- but with this new goal, California will have to be using 60% clean energy by 2030 in order to successfully reach 100% by 2045. The California Renewable Portfolio Standard Program, which is the state body responsible for regulating public ... Read More >

California Utility Companies Fighting to Change Wildfire Liability Law

California has been subjected to devastating wildfires as of late and local utility companies are fighting to have a change made in state laws regarding liability from wildfire damage. Unfortunately, it doesn't look like any changes are going to be made any time soon. Pacific Gas and Electric (PGandE) is California's biggest utility owner. The company has been asking lawmakers to change the state rules regarding collecting compensation. Currently the state laws, known as "inverse condemnation", state that property owners have the right to collect compensation from utilities linked to fires whether or not the company was negligent. As of ... Read More >

All About California’s New Voter Data Breach Law

A new California Law requires journalists, researchers, and political campaigns to notify California officials if they receive voter data that may have been stolen. California Gov. Jerry Brown signed the law last month. Organizations that receive voter registration data for California residents must now report security breaches that may impact that information. This data can include important information like names, addresses, birth dates, and more. Voter files, or digital databases of voter information, are built by using publicly available information about people who are registered to vote. These files can give people and ... Read More >

New California Law Could Give Consumers More Control Over Online Privacy

For the past several years, consumers have been fighting for their right to more privacy when using online platforms. And under a new California law, they might just get the online privacy protections they've been asking for. California Gov. Jerry Brown has signed a new law into effect that is considered the nation's more strict law regarding online privacy. The law goes into effect in January 2020 and will allow consumers to know what personal information is being collected by companies and where it's being shared. Furthermore, consumers will be allowed to have their information deleted by companies that obtain it and not allow them to ... Read More >

The California Senate Joint Resolution 21: What it’s Asking for

There exists a significant amount of legislation at the state level, as anyone would surmise. Many of the laws passed at the state level are, for the most part, known by residents. However, there are amendments and resolutions that slightly alter or add to those laws; including the Constitution which has been amended 27 times since its creation. These resolutions widely go unnoticed by the public and are often dismissed by the lawmakers themselves once an alteration is passed. These resolutions to state legislation offer little no actual enforcement and are, in essence, forms of recognition or a means to pacify constituents in times of ... Read More >

Origins of California’s paramedics

Anybody weaned on shows the likes of “ER” is familiar with Hollywood’s version of a hospital emergency room: A place where, at regular intervals, a cadre of professionals, along with a patient on a gurney, slams through a pair of swinging doors and rushes inside, all while paramedics shout rapid-fire bits of information to hospital staff. Medical professionals can tell us how, or even whether, the above scene squares with reality. We do know that in real life, if you have a medical emergency and 911 responds, you likely will first receive advanced medical care on the scene – long before you reach a hospital – from a paramedic or EMT. It’s ... Read More >